Coenzyme Analysis

Whole blood coenzymes and antioxidants

Using the newly developed NMR methods, we provide absolute concentrations for the following coenzymes/co-factors:

    • Redox coenzymes/co-factors: NAD+, NADH, NADP+ and NADPH
    • Energy coenzymes/cofactors: ATP, ADP and AMP
    • Antioxidants: Reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG).
Portion of ¹H NMR spectrum highlighting the coenzyme levels in biological sample.


    • Nagana Gowda G.A., Abell L, Tian R. Extending the Scope of 1H NMR Spectroscopy for the Analysis of Cellular Coenzyme A and Acetyl Coenzyme A. Anal. Chem. 2019, 91 (3), 2464-2471.
    • Nagana Gowda, G. A.; Raftery, D. Whole Blood Metabolomics by 1 H NMR Spectroscopy Provides a New Opportunity To Evaluate Coenzymes and Antioxidants. Anal. Chem. 2017, 89 (8), 4620–4627.
    • Nagana Gowda, G.A., Abell, L., Lee, C. F., Tian, R., Raftery, D.: Simultaneous Analysis of Major Coenzymes of Cellular Redox Reactions and Energy Using ex Vivo 1H NMR Spectroscopy. Anal. Chem. 2016, 88 (9), 4817-4824.